A laminectomy is a surgical procedure that removes a portion of the vertebral bone called the lamina. At its most minimally invasive, the procedure requires only small skin incisions. The back muscles are pushed aside rather than cut and the parts of the vertebra adjacent to the lamina are left intact. Recovery occurs within a few days. Most commonly, a laminectomy is performed to treat spinal stenosis. Spinal stenosis is the single most common diagnosis that leads to spinal surgery, of which a laminectomy represents one component. The lamina of the vertebra is removed or trimmed to widen the spinal canal and create more space for the spinal nerves and thecal sac. A lot of international patients come for spinal surgery in India in accredited hospitals in India.
Spinal-fusion"Spinal fusion, also known as spondylodesis or spondylosyndesis, is a surgical technique used to join two or more vertebrae. Supplementary bone tissue, either from the patient (autograft) or a donor (allograft), is used in conjunction with the body's natural bone growth (osteoblastic) processes to fuse the vertebrae.
Fusing of the spine is used primarily to eliminate the pain caused by abnormal motion of the vertebrae by immobilizing the faulty vertebrae themselves, which is usually caused by degenerative conditions. However, spinal fusion is also the preferred way to treat most spinal deformities, specifically scoliosis and kyphosis.
Conditions where spinal fusion may be considered:
"Coccygectomy is a surgical procedure during which the coccyx, is removed. It can be performed for many reasons for instance in patients with coccyx pain (tailbone pain), however it is typically reserved for patients with malignant cancer or for patients whose tailbone pain has failed to respond to nonsurgical treatment (such as medications by mouth, use of seat cushions, and medications given by local injections done under fluoroscopic guidance).
In humans, coccygectomy is the treatment of last resort for coccydynia, but is considered a required treatment for sacrococcygeal teratoma and other germ cell tumors arising from the coccyx.
To preserve normal defecation, coccygectomy normally is accompanied by re-attachment (also known as re-approximation) of the two levator ani muscles and of the perineum, parts of the pelvic floor. In adults who undergo coccygectomy, one infrequent complication is a subsequent perineal hernia or coccygeal hernia. In these hernias, bowel or other pelvic contents bulge downward and out of the pelvis through a weakened pelvic floor. This complication has not been reported in persons who underwent coccygectomy while a baby or child. A milder version of hernia is when someone just has prolapse (sagging) of the pelvic floor. To repair these hernias, a variety of surgical techniques have been described."
A corpectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part of the vertebral body (Latin: corpus vertebrae, hence the name corpectomy), usually as a way to decompress the spinal cord and nerves. Corpectomy is often performed in association with some form of discectomy.
"Vertebral fixation (also known as ""spinal fixation"") is a neurosurgical procedure in which two or more vertebrae are anchored to each other through a synthetic ""vertebral fixation device"", with the aim of reducing vertebral mobility and thus avoiding possible damage to the spinal cord and/or spinal roots The device used to achieve vertebral fixation is usually a permanent rigid or semi-rigid prosthesis made of titanium; examples include rods, plates, screws, and various combinations thereof. A much less common alternative is the use of a resorbable fixation device, composed of a bio-resorbable material; for example, this could be a polymer capable of being degraded into acidic products, and thus in need of including a buffering agent to avoid acid damage (which may damage the bone adjacent to the device)."
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are similar medical spinal procedures in which bone cement is injected through a small hole in the skin (percutaneously) into a fractured vertebra with the goal of relieving back pain caused by vertebral compression fractures.
"Spinal decompression is a term that describes the relief of pressure on one or many pinched nerves (neural impingement) of the spinal column.
Spinal decompression can be achieved both surgically and non-surgically and is used to treat conditions that result in chronic back pain such as disc bulge, disc herniation, sciatica, spinal stenosis, and isthmic and degenerative spondylolisthesis.
Surgical spinal decompression may be performed using one of these common procedures: Microdiscectomy (or microdecompression) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which a portion of a herniated nucleus pulposus is removed by way of a surgical instrument or laser while using an operating microscope or loupe for magnification.
Laminectomy (or open decompression) is an invasive surgical procedure in which a small portion of the arch of the vertebrae (bone) is removed from the spine to alleviate the pressure on the pinched nerve. This is an elective procedure for patients who have not had relief of back pain through more conservative treatment options."
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